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Term used in psychology to question whether something measures that which it purports to measure. Given the great debate about intelligence any IQ test can be questioned on the grounds of its validity. Psychology immediately asks the question 'Does this test measure this thing we call intelligence?' Is it valid?
Variable interval schedule
Formula 1 version of fixed interval schedule! The variable interval schedule is where you change the time at which the reward is to be given. 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 19 seconds etc. A variable interval schedule sees a high and steady rate of behavioural response, and extinction is slow. .
Variable ratio schedule
Formula 1 version of fixed ratio schedule! Variable ratio is where you change the ratio of reward to desired behaviour. Using a variable ratio schedule Skinner rewarded the rats on the basis of their lever pressing 1:1, then 1:5; then 1:10 then 1:13 etc. A variable ratio schedule sees a high rate of behavioural response and is resistant to extinction. Variable interval schedule
A variable is something that can vary/change: such as thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, the subject matter of psychology. In psychological experiments we control, observe, and measure a number of different types of variable. These would include the independent variable, the dependent variable, and extraneous variables. The control, observation, and measurement of such is the hallmark of the experimental method in science.
Part of our brain situated just above our neck that allows us to experience vision. Information from the optic nerve from our left eye goes to our right visual cortex, and optic nerve from our right eye to our left visual cortex. The two optic nerves cross over in the middle of our brain at the optic chiasma. Getting a knock on the back of the head is the reason we see 'stars before our eyes'. Our visual cortex has been given a shock.
This is our encoded memory of a stimulus on the basis of any visual property associated with it. We encode visual information, like the words on a page, to visual memory. Our visual memory is poor in comparison to acoustic memory. Try passing an exam on the basis of having only read over your class notes. You will hardly remember a thing - so DON'T!!
When we come across a stimulus we encode it to memory on the basis of its properties. Visual memory concerns what we remember about something on the basis of what it looks like. Our visual memory is not all that brilliant when compared to the two other encoding systems we use to get stimulus information into memory These other systems are called acoustic code, and semantic code. Acoustic encoding occurs when a stimulus has some sound property associated with it. Semantic encoding occurs when a stimulus is personally meaningful. We remember much more of what we hear, than what we see, and remember even more again if what we encounter is important to us as individuals.
A sample made up of people who volunteer to take part in your research. Can give rise to volunteer bias.
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