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The temporal lobe controls hearing, speech and memory. The brain has two temporal lobes, one on each side of the brain, located near the ear
A large mass of brain cells located at the top of our brainstem near the hypothalamus. The thalamus is important to our motor activity and control. It receives auditory, Somatosensory and visual signals, and relays sensory signals to our cerebral cortex.
Ability to problem-solve, 'whole brain process.' Types of thinking: convergent and divergent. How, and on what basis, do we think? Piaget. Innate abilities of organisation, and adaptation of schema (mental representations of stimuli). Adaptation of schema -> assimilation (child's general interpretation of world), and then accommodation (specific interpretation). Disequilibrium to equilibrium. Bruner. Child develops modes of representation or internal forms of language to think about/problem solve in its world. Enactive mode 0-2, thinks/problem-solves using gestures, facial expressions, laughing, crying. Iconic mode 2-5 uses mental images to remember people, objects. Semantic mode age 7+ , use of language to think/deal with world. Key to intellectual growth.
Third force psychology
The late great Ernest Hilgard of Stanford University first described First, Second, and Third Force psychology. First force is behaviourism, or the influence our environment has on in terms of learning by stimulus-response. Second force psychology is the psychoanalytic approach, and its emphasis on our unconscious and early childhood experiences in the development of our personality. The terms First and Second Force psychologies never caught on, and are now defunct. Third force psychology did. Third Force psychology is another name for the humanistic approach. Third Force psychology believes that all people are inherently good. And that though personal growth can develop a personality in terms of self-actualisation. The fully functioning person has an inner wisdom and confidence to guide their own life in a manner that is personally satisfying and socially constructive.
A behaviour modification technique well used in psychiatric hospitals, prisons, schools etc. A token economy involves the use of a reward in such places, which is exchanged by the recipient for goods, services etc. The reward or token is only given for desired behaviours. Excellent research into the token economy and the treatment of schizophrenia has been done by the likes of Ayllon and Azrin (1968), and Paul and Lentz (1977).
From a biological point of view a trait is a genetic or physical characteristic that a species has. A trait can also refer to a personality characteristic in psychology.
used in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, where the therapist acts out important experiences from the patients past.
A trend line is the line of best fit drawn to illustrate the type and direction of statistical relationship, or correlation, found between two covariates in a descriptive statistic called a scattergram.
Rosenberg and Hovland (1960) are credited with the tri-component model of attitudes as favoured by the structural approach. They say that attitudes have three main components. A cognitive component, which is our belief(s) about something e.g. whales are endangered and about to become extinct. An emotional or affective component that expresses how we feel in a positive or negative manner about the attitude object. Thus 'I love whales'. The behavioural or conative component (Katz, 1960) is where we act or behave in some way towards the attitude object, by for example joining a Save the Whale pressure group. Tri-component theory assumes we are rational human beings and that there is consistency between our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours or attitudes. This is not the case, otherwise psychologists would be able to predict how people would behave on the basis of knowing previously how they think and/or feel about something (Ostrom, 1989). Most drivers think speeding is bad. They feel that it can lead to accidents. But most behave inconsistently with their thoughts and feelings because they often drive faster than is allowed on our roads.
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