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Kettlewell (1955)
Excellent piece of research supporting Darwin’s theory of evolution, or survival of the fittest. Fittest refers to a species having/not having a successful adaptation that allows it to better fit its environment. These traits come about as a result of genetic mutation. As animals and humans don’t have control over environmental changes, whether a species has a successful adaptive trait that to helps it survive better is largely down to luck. Kettlewell (1955) ably demonstrates this. Kettlewell was interested in the British peppered moth, of which there are two species. The dark peppered moth, and the light peppered moth (that must have taken ages to think up!!). Before the industrial revolution, which occurred from the mid 18th to the mid 19th century, the bark of British trees was light in colour. This favoured the light peppered moth, as when it rested on the trees it was harder to see than its dark coloured cousin. The darker one stood out more, and sparrows and the like thus ate more. Kettlewell traced population growth and decline before, during and after the industrial revolution. Before, the light peppered moth was more populous than the dark peppered moth. As the industrial revolution progressed the population of the light peppered moth began to fall, and the dark peppered moth grow. This was because our tree bark was getting darker because of the growth of factories and massive industrial pollution. Interestingly, since the introduction of laws governing factory pollution in Britain the population of the light peppered moth has begun to grow again. Why do you think this is?

Describes feedback from the body that gives an individual an awareness of their bodily position in space. It includes muscles, joints, the other five senses and also the inner ear which allows the body to determine if it's the right way up! It Is sometimes described as being the sixth sense.

Knowledge and understanding needs
Once our deficiency needs are met, Maslow said we then address our growth needs. These are of two kinds cognitive, or knowledge and understanding needs, and self-actualisation. Knowledge and understanding needs drive us to find out what it means to be human. This might mean understanding how a car engine works, the beauty of art, or Higher psychology!

Koluchová (1972, 1976, 1991) is famous for her longitudinal case study into two twin Czechoslovak boys JM and PM found as young children in a situation of severe deprivation.

For an excellent synopsis of the study and an overview of how early childhood experiences can influence our life path please click on

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Dyslexia and Myers-Irlen
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Report Writing Glossary
Dyslexia & Myers-Irlen syndrome

Research into dyslexia and Myers-Irlen syndrome suggests that changing the background colour upon which words are written can often benefit the reader. If you feel this applies to you please select your preferred colour from the DMI EasiReader © below.

Click here to go to the DMI EasiReader information page


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