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Geiselman and Fisher (1986)
Memory and police investigations. The cognitive interview technique.

If your research sample is properly constructed this gives you an ability to generalise any results and conclusions about them onto the target population from which your sample came.

A gene is a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. Genes contain proteins necessary to build an organism. A gene carries biological information, which is copied and transmitted from each cell to its entire offspring. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

Genetics are those biological characteristics we inherit from our birth parents, and those universal innate abilities that humans share with each other. Humans inherit 23 pairs of chromosomes from male & female parent. 23rd pairing determines sex. XX = female. XY = male. Chromosomes contain our genes (10-20K in each chromosome), which create protein, needed to build our bodily structures/functions. A gene contains our biological blueprint in terms of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA holds the body's protein building instructions, or bases (A, T, C and G). The results of which make us 99.9% similar, but 0.1% different. Psychology sees this 0.1% in terms of our individual differences (intelligence, atypical behaviours, and (possibly) personality).

Genital stage
Is the last stage of Freud's psychosexual theory of personality development and begins in puberty. It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another in our 20's or so.

The genetic make-up of a species, plant, animal and human. Did you know that human beings and bananas are 62% similar in genome!!

Your genetic potential when born. Physically and psychologically. Someone may be born with the physical genotype to play football for his or her country. Someone may be born with a genetic potential to develop depression. Whether they do so depends on environment. See phenotype.

In humanistic psychotherapy the counsellor or facilitator will be genuine about themselves. In doing so it is hoped the client will be genuine about themselves and consequently experience personal growth.

Gestalten are innate abilities that help us make sense of our world. Koffka, Kohler and Wertheimer, the founders of the long gone gestalt school of psychology, first identified them around 1910 in Germany with their Laws of Pragnänz (laws of perceptual grouping). They said we have a natural ability to tidy up a stimulus in terms of ‘wholeness’. As a result we understand it better. Particular gestalten include proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, texture and common fate. Let’s take similarity. The gestalt of similarity happens when we perceive similar objects as belonging to the same group. Look at the object below.

Using similarity you will automatically group what goes to make up this object. Black squares. Horizontal and vertical white lines, and indeed a third aspect that doesn’t actually exist in reality! Can you see them? How weird is that?

The most important gestalt is closure. But to find out more you’ll need to read Page 78 of Approaches and Methods! You can get your copy here.

If a survey is poorly constructed, the information obtained from it will equally be as poor. This is GIGO, or Garbage In, Garbage Out. GIGO can be avoided by adopting a good survey design.

Good/poor gestalt
The humanistic approach looks at our personality in terms of the whole person. Our whole person is what makes us as we are in terms of self. Understanding the specific influences of phenomenology, personal agency, and existentialism on our personality is called good gestalt. Good gestalt is a clearer view of all the personality-shaping experiences in our life, good and bad. Good gestalt is essential to a 'decision to change' often needed in humanistic psychotherapy before the client can embark on personal growth. What this means is that they recognise the bad for what it is, decide to abandon this path and not look back.

Growth needs
According to Maslow and his Hierarchy of Needs we achieve personal growth when first our deficiency needs, and then our growth needs are met. Growth needs are twofold. Our first growth need is 'Knowledge and understanding', while the second is 'Self-actualisation.' Once self-actualisation has been achieved you are said to be a fully functioning person.

Dyslexia and Myers-Irlen
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Report Writing Glossary
Dyslexia & Myers-Irlen syndrome

Research into dyslexia and Myers-Irlen syndrome suggests that changing the background colour upon which words are written can often benefit the reader. If you feel this applies to you please select your preferred colour from the DMI EasiReader © below.

Click here to go to the DMI EasiReader information page


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