Jump to:  The Behaviourist Approach
Dyslexia and Myers-Irlen

Founded by JB Watson in 1915 the behaviourist approach studies observed behavioural responses of humans and animals. The behaviourist approach believes we learn to behave in response to our environment, either by stimulus-response association, or as a result of reinforcement. Important contributors to the behaviourist approach are Ivan Pavlov, with his theory of classical conditioning, and BF Skinner, and his work into operant conditioning. Classical conditioning concerns learning by association. Operant conditioning concerns the use of environmental reinforcers in its explanation of why we learn to behave as we do. Classical conditioning emphasises conditioning, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalisation, stimulus discrimination, and reinforcement in the learning process. Operant conditioning tells us that the type of reinforcer encountered by the organism can influence this process of reinforcement. Reward, or positive reinforcement tends to encourage the repetition of a learned behaviour. Avoidance of unpleasant consequence, or negative reinforcement, tends to discourage the repetition of a discomforting behaviour. Classical conditioning has been applied regards behaviour shaping and to behaviour therapies, such as systematic desensitisation, implosion therapy, and aversion therapy. Operant conditioning has been applied to behaviour modification regimes such as the token economy and programmed learning. Reinforcement techniques like fixed ratio and fixed interval schedules have been found to be of benefit in new learning situations. Behaviourist ideas, especially those of BF Skinner, have been particularly influential to education. However, the thoughts, feelings, and behaviours of higher-level species, such as human beings, are nowadays thought far more sophisticated than the behaviourist approach originally thought.

Continue to exam answerspsychology next symbol

Return to:
Switch to:
Research methods and the Correlation
Psychological Processes
Fun Learning and Teaching Stuff
Hints and tips:

Click on any underlined text to jump to that topic or to jump to the glossary description of that item.
Dyslexia & Myers-Irlen syndrome

Research into dyslexia and Myers-Irlen syndrome suggests that changing the background colour upon which words are written can often benefit the reader. If you feel this applies to you please select your preferred colour from the DMI EasiReader © below.

Click here to go to the DMI EasiReader information page


Area 51
Area 51

[ Sign my Guestbook] - [Read my Guestbook ]